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classical athens' population

According to the Greek mythology, Cecrops, who was half man and half serpent, founded Athens and became the first king. There were many gates, among the more important there were: Among the more important streets, there were: The period from the end of the Persian Wars to the Macedonian conquest marked the zenith of Athens as a center of literature, philosophy (see Greek philosophy) and the arts (see Greek theatre). [10] In other words, the Athenian imperialist democracy knew how to open the safety valve, but it does not appear to have been desperate to get rid of an excess underclass. BMCR provides the opportunity to comment on reviews in order to enhance scholarly communication. That supposedly worked after a number of times, and Cleomenes led a Spartan force to overthrow Hippias, which succeeded, and instated an oligarchy. In the classical period, Athens was a centre for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum,[2][3] Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world. Subsequently, the Athenians and their allies, led by Themistocles, defeated the Persian navy at sea in the Battle of Salamis. That forced the Athenians to evacuate Athens, which was taken by the Persians, and seek the protection of their fleet. Fifth-century Syracuse was roughly the same size as Athens, and a century later had between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants. Hence, he gave his name to the Athenian Golden Age. The Legal and Social Condition of the Enslaved Population in Classical Athens. The Perioeci, whose name means “dwellers-around,” worked as craftsmen and traders, and … [7] The Assembly or Ecclesia was open to all full citizens and was both a legislature and a supreme court, except in murder cases and religious matters, which became the only remaining functions of the Areopagus. Close this message to accept … In 403, democracy was restored by Thrasybulus and an amnesty declared. In a much shorter concluding section on sex structures, the author suggests that the practice of infanticide was relatively rare in Classical Athens, given that war casualties were consistently replaced. Whereas Doc C (population estimates from mixed sources) the population of Han china in 200 C.E was 65,000,000 total. The book comprises eight chapters, the first six of which seek to establish Athens’ population (and its basic material needs) down to 431. (Herning 1985). The result was democracy in Athens, but considering Cleisthenes' motivation for using the people to gain power, as without their support, he would have been defeated, and so Athenian democracy may be tainted by the fact its creation served greatly the man who created it. Of the temples, the grandest was the Parthenon, sacred to the "Virgin" goddess Athena; and north of the Parthenon was the magnificent Erechtheion, containing three separate temples, one to Athena Polias, or the "Protectress of the State," the Erechtheion proper, or sanctuary of Erechtheus, and the Pandroseion, or sanctuary of Pandrosos, the daughter of Cecrops. Sparta, also known as Lacedaemon, was an ancient Greek city-state located primarily in the present-day region of southern Greece called Laconia. [3] Hansen, in turn (above, n. 2), exploited the superior life tables of Coale and Demeny. The public opinion of voters could be influenced by the political satires written by the comic poets and performed in the city theaters. Upon their exile, they went to Delphi, and Herodotus[6] says they bribed the Pythia always to tell visiting Spartans that they should invade Attica and overthrow Hippias. A.D. (Dale) Trendall (1909-1995) was a leading authority on ancient Greek vase painting and one of the foremost classical art historians of his time. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. The summit of the Acropolis was covered with temples, statues of bronze and marble, and various other works of art. Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for perhaps 5,000 years. During its classical period, Athens had a population between 350,000 and 610,000. Antipater dissolved the Athenian government and established a plutocratic system in 322 BC (see Lamian War and Demetrius Phalereus). Akrigg plausibly suggests that the land grabs under Athenian imperial rule would have afforded opportunities for emigration and thus an incentive for natural fertility increase that might otherwise have been lacking in a Greek community. Perhaps future archaeological work will tell us something about the wealth inequality and economic growth at the deme level. Athens was in Attica, about 30 stadia from the sea, on the southwest slope of Mount Lycabettus, between the small rivers Cephissus to the west, Ilissos to the south, and the Eridanos to the north, the latter of which flowed through the town. • Born in Athens • Male Many would argue that Athens did not have a true democracy because not everyone could participate. ), Debating the Athenian Cultural Revolution: Art, Literature, Philosophy, and Politics 430-380 BC (Cambridge 2007): 27-43; “Demography and Classical Athens,” in C. Holleran and A. Pudsey (eds. In sum, Ben Akrigg has produced a sophisticated demographic study that should establish new baselines for future debate and that has raised provocative questions about a famous ancient society’s sustainability. Classical Athens refers to the city of Athens from 508 to 322 BC. During the time of the ascendancy of Ephialtes as leader of the democratic faction, Pericles was his deputy. The author also now attends to the issue of the wealth distribution of Attica, discussing previous arguments by R. Osborne, L. Foxhall, and G. Kron. Population and Economy in Classical Athens This is the first comprehensive account of the population of classical Athens for almost a century. That provoked two Persian invasions of Greece, both of which were repelled under the leadership of the soldier-statesmen Miltiades and Themistocles (see Persian Wars). Finally Thebes defeated Sparta in 371 in the Battle of Leuctra. Its beauty was chiefly due to its public buildings, for the private houses were mostly insignificant, and its streets badly laid out. The silver mines of Laurion contributed significantly to the development of Athens in the 5th century BC, when the Athenians learned to prospect, treat, and refine the ore and used the proceeds to build a massive fleet, at the instigation of Themistocles.[8]. [Oxford 1933] 34, cf. Chapter 4, “Population Size 2: Non-Citizens,” deals with the much thornier question of slave and metic populations. Evidence for this has come from pottery finds on and around the Acropolis but particularly from a group of about 20 shallow wells, or pits, on the northwest slope of the Acropolis, just below the Klepsydra spring. Athens is named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and war, and daughter of Zeus. Overall, this is a thoughtful and learned volume by an experienced scholar.” —Konstantinos Kapparis, University of Florida The Plague of Athens (Ancient Greek: Λοιμὸς τῶν Ἀθηνῶν, Loimos tôn Athênôn) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year (430 BC) of the Peloponnesian War when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. Many of Classical civilization’s intellectual and artistic ideas originated there, and the city is generally considered to be the birthplace of Western civilization. Hippias, son of Peisistratus, had ruled Athens jointly with his brother, Hipparchus, from the death of Peisistratus in about 527. The question just posed roughly maps on to Akrigg’s stated concerns: 1) to show that the population was in fact in that range, as scholars have previously suggested but have left relatively unexplored; and 2) to “show why such an account is necessary…and to persuade the reader that this subject…is an important part of the history of the city” (1). In theory, it was composed of all the citizens of Athens; however, it is estimated that the maximum number of participants it included was 6,000. Hippias exiled 700 of the Athenian noble families, amongst them Cleisthenes' family, the Alchmaeonids. Bryn Mawr PA 19010. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Cambridge Classical Studies: Population and Economy in Classical Athens by Ben Akrigg (2019, Hardcover) at the best online prices at eBay! [8] But was fifth-century Athens the ticking time bomb of wealth inequality the author suggests? Xerxes had built himself a throne on the coast in order to see the Greeks defeated. Around the tenth century B.C., the settlers … to 400 B.C, the population in ancient Greece rose. In addition the Long Walls consisted of two parallel walls leading to Piraeus, 40 stadia long (4.5 miles, 7 km), running parallel to each other, with a narrow passage between them and, furthermore, a wall to Phalerum on the east, 35 stadia long (4 miles, 6.5 km). Some of the most important figures of Western cultural and intellectual history lived in Athens during this period: the dramatists Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Euripides and Sophocles, the philosophers Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates, the historians Herodotus, Thucydides and Xenophon, the poet Simonides and the sculptor Phidias. The book must serve as the prolegomenon to any future discussion of Athenian demography—but it aims at more. In Chapter 3, “Population Size 1: Citizens,” Akrigg exploits our single most important piece of evidence, Thuc. On the west side the walls embraced the Hill of the Nymphs and the Pnyx, and to the southeast they ran along beside the Ilissos. It was originally surrounded by an ancient Cyclopean wall said to have been built by the Pelasgians. ), Communities and Networks in the Ancient Greek World (Oxford 2015): 155-76. The story of Athena is very similar to the story of the founding of Greece. In 499 BC, Athens sent troops to aid the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor, who were rebelling against the Persian Empire (see Ionian Revolt). a rapid jump-perhaps a doubling or even a trebling-in population (J. N. Coldstream, Geometric Greece [London 1977] 109, 367-369); there was "a considerable natural increase of the population between 480 and 430, and between 400 320" (A. W. Gomme, The Population of Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C. ), The Athenian Empire (Edinburgh 2008): 14-40, at pp. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. The city of Athens, Greece, with its famous Acropolis, has come to symbolize the whole of the country in the popular imagination, and not without cause. The society was divided into several sections such as citizens, freedman, upper class people, slaves, women etc. Of that population, only 10-20% (31,000 - 46,500) actually had a say in the government. Chapter 5, “Population Changes,” observes that the citizen population, at least, of Attica appears to have doubled during the pentecontaetia and then contracted again due to the Peloponnesian War and the plague. It is estimated that by 400 B.C, ancient Greece had a population of 13 million. ")[11], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.97°N 23.72°E / 37.97; 23.72, Delian League ("Athenian Empire") shown in yellow, Athenian territory shown in red, situation in 431 BC, before the, Corinthian War and the Second Athenian League (395–355 BC), "Greece uncovers 'holy grail' of Greek archeology", "Ancient History in depth The Democratic Experiment", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Classical_Athens&oldid=1000515633, 4th-century BC disestablishments in Greece, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, ~250,000 (men with civil rights: ~30,000), This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 12:12. Athens is the capital of Greece, the largest city in the country, and one of the world’s oldest cities overall.It has a rich history that goes back over 3,400 years and is considered the cradle of Western democracy. He was an expert in South Italian vases, namely the red-figured pottery produced by Greeks and the local population living in South Italy and Sicily in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The latter part of the chapter attempts to square the fourth-century evidence with Akrigg’s theory that drastic population decline from war and plague involved land redistribution. [10] See the useful tables of T. Figueira, “Colonisation in the Classical Period,” in G. R. Tsetskhladze (ed. The leading statesman of this period was Pericles, who used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments of classical Athens. Following the assassination of Hipparchus in about 514, Hippias took on sole rule, and in response to the loss of his brother, became a worse leader who was increasingly disliked. He fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history. Since the defeat was largely blamed on democratic politicians such as Cleon and Cleophon, there was a brief reaction against democracy, aided by the Spartan army (the rule of the Thirty Tyrants). Sparta's hegemony was passing to Athens, and it was Athens that took the war to Asia Minor. there were roughly 50,000 adult male citizens, 25,000 metics, and 100,000 slaves in Athens. During the winter of 338 BC /337 BC Macedonia, Athens and other Greek states became part of the League of Corinth. Population & Map Approximately 140,000; Approximately 40,000 men were citizens; and slaves (about 40,000). The population of Sparta consisted of three main groups: the Spartans, or Spartiates, who were full citizens; the Helots, or serfs/slaves; and the Perioeci, who were neither slaves nor citizens. A population as large as that of classical Athens could be supported only by the regular importation of food 2 from abroad, which had to be financed by trade and other revenues. The population’s needs for barley, olive oil, and wine are helpfully set out in Table 6.1; the obvious takeaway is that Athens depended on imports to meet its needs, given its own limited area of cultivable land. Akrigg does not deny that democracy and empire could have mitigated growing inequality (if that is in fact what was happening), but he still maintains that without war or plague “the democracy would have come under increasing strain and might not have lasted long” (223). Simultaneously the Athenians led an indecisive naval battle off Artemisium. Akrigg questions W. Scheidel’s understanding of Athens as an exception to Scheidel’s general (bleak) picture of economic growth and wealth inequality. On the west end of the Acropolis, where access is alone practicable, were the magnificent Propylaea, "the Entrances," built by Pericles, before the right wing of which was the small Temple of Athena Nike. The chapter ends with an illuminating discussion of the wood required for minting coins and feeding the workforce of the silver mines. In 338 BC the armies of Philip II defeated Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea, effectively limiting Athenian independence. Population and Economy in Classical Athens by Ben Akrigg, 9781107027091, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. With the pioneering work of M. K. Hopkins on the age structure of the Roman population, however, ancient demography was put on better footing, since Hopkins recognized the importance of UN model life tables. There were therefore three long walls in all; but the name Long Walls seems to have been confined to the two leading to the Piraeus, while the one leading to Phalerum was called the Phalerian Wall. Greek city-states of the ancient world did in fact remain limited in size. The total population in the 4th cent. To sum up my conclusions at the outset, I would observe that much more space is given to question 1 than to question 2, and that when the author turns to the bigger picture, the results must, given the state of the evidence, remain ambiguous. In 480 the Persians returned under a new ruler, Xerxes I. Athens - Athens - History: The site of Athens has been inhabited since the Neolithic Period (before 3000 bce). Athens (Attiki) was the largest Greek city-state, approaching a population of approximately 100,000 by 500-450 B.C. The war between Athens and the city-state Sparta ended with an Athenian defeat after Sparta started its own navy. Ben Towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, it contained more than 10,000 houses,[10] which at a rate of 12 inhabitants to a house would give a population of 120,000, though some writers make the inhabitants as many as 180,000. Free shipping for many products! Comments are moderated. Athenian democracy was briefly overthrown by the coup of 411, brought about because of its poor handling of the war, but it was quickly restored. The lower city was built in the plain around the Acropolis, but this plain also contained several hills, especially in the southwest part. Citizens, Metics, and Slaves: The population of Athens was made up of three distinct groups: citizens, or men who were of Athenian birth and free-born; metics, or foreigners who lived in Athens but who had no citizenship rights, and slaves It is estimated that in 431 B.C. To these he would add 40,000 or 30,000 non-hoplites, respectively, for the total citizen adult male population, but his grounds for doing so are unclear at this stage, since he addresses neither the distribution of wealth in Athenian society nor the relation, if any, of the Solonian census classes to military functions until later in the book. The Parthenon, a lavishly decorated temple to the goddess Athena, was constructed under the administration of Pericles.[9]. If the population of Attica was 400,000 or more on the verge of the Peloponnesian War, as Ben Akrigg convincingly argues in this book, what might that demographic fact alone mean for Athenian history? [1] The introductory Chapter 1 emphasizes that sustained studies of the fourth-century population of Athens, above all that by M. H. Hansen,[2] had as their impetus the questions of whether and how the Athenian constitution made good on its stated goal of a highly participatory state. Each tribe was in turn divided into three trittyes (one from the coast; one from the city and one from the inland divisions), while each trittys had one or more demes, depending on their population, which became the basis of local government. It is surprising that given the sheer number of people living in those times, only little remains of their constructs. The city became, in Pericles's words, an education for Hellas (usually quoted as "the school of Hellas [Greece]. When Ephialtes was assassinated by personal enemies, Pericles stepped in and was elected general, or strategos, in 445 BC; a post he held continuously until his death in 429 BC, always by election of the Athenian Assembly. Hippias, son of Peisistratus, had ruled Athens jointly with his brother, Hipparchus, from the death of Peisistratus in about 527. The ensuing discussion of metics is striking for its insistence that the label “metic” connoted servility and that Athenian citizens aligned metics more closely with slaves than citizens. Jun 8 2014 • 244 views. Since many citizens were incapable of exercising political rights, due to their poverty or ignorance, a number of governmental resources existed … It is also concerned with the age‐structure of populations, which is mainly determined by fertility rates and also by mortality rates. Instead, the Persians were routed. Scheidel has suggested that the redistributive and military aspects of the Athenian democracy put a brake on the usual runaway inequality involved in growth, but Akrigg rightly points out that Scheidel’s picture of Athens stems from the fourth century, after the ruinous effects of the war and the plague. It may be, then, that Athens was no less a “beneficiary” of two of Scheidel’s “four horsemen” of inequality reduction, war and disease. Akrigg believes that we can do better than Hansen’s conclusions on this front. Opposition to Sparta enabled Athens to establish a Second Athenian League. Pericles – an Athenian general, politician and orator – distinguished himself above the other personalities of the era, men who excelled in politics, philosophy, architecture, sculpture, history and literature. During the time of democracy in Athens, the city was home to about 310,000 people. They established themselves near the crag, which later would become the Acropolis. Chapter 6, “Immediate Implications of Population Change: War and Food” (but see above on this “change”), entails a dense summary of the fifth-century Attic population’s food requirements. Specialist readers will know these arguments from a series of book chapters produced by the author since 2007, but there is much new (and important) material, and it is useful to have everything in one place under a coherent framework. [7] A rise in the value of slaves would also account for the (apparent) first appearance of “cocky” slaves such as Xanthias in Aristophanes’ Frogs. This is the first comprehensive account of the population of classical Athens for almost a century. Jesús David Quintero Aleans . [4] Embracing the Immigrant: The Participation of Metics in Athenian Polis Religion (5th-4th Century BC) (Stuttgart 2014). Cleisthenes disliked the Spartan rule, along with many other Athenians, and so made his own bid for power. 3. Sparta's former allies soon turned against her due to her imperialist policies, and Athens's former enemies, Thebes and Corinth, became her allies. Han china and classical Athens population was distributed differently. Argos, Thebes and Corinth, allied with Athens, fought against Sparta in the decisive Corinthian War of 395–387 BC. [3] “On the Probable Age Structure of the Roman Population,” Population Studies 20 (1966): 245-64. Athens, historic city and capital of Greece. 2 (Leiden 2008): 427-523. bc may have been about two million people.Demography is not just a matter of population size. However, that delaying action was not enough to discourage the Persian advance, which soon marched through Boeotia, setting up Thebes as their base of operations, and entered southern Greece. [4] Did the average Athenian really view the family of Cephalus—wealthy, pro-democratic metics from Syracuse—as closer to slaves than citizens? J. Ober’s work on defenses and C. Taylor’s on the increasing presence of rural demesmen in politics would seem to be compatible with the author’s picture. The conflict marked the end of Athenian command of the sea. [5] See W. Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century (Princeton 2017). The workings of Athens’ democracy, the structure of its society, and the nature of Greek inter-state relations—all were fundamentally shaped by the size and makeup of the population. Chapter 2, “Population Structures,” approaches the total population of Attica, for which we have no explicit ancient evidence, according to age structure and sex structure. From 800 B.C. 101 N. Merion Ave., Akrigg rightly notes that there are research questions beyond that of the fourth-century democracy’s ability to live up to its values and that the population of the fifth century has been largely sidelined, despite its importance. It is also worth noting that the numbers involved in individual colonial and cleruchal projects appear rarely to have surpassed 1,000 citizens at a time. By 432 BC, Athens had become the most populous city-state in Hellas. [9] Instead Akrigg suggests that overall growth benefited the rich alone (226), but we simply do not know. Even if absolute inequality increased during the fifth century, as was probably the case, Akrigg does not sufficiently allow for overall income growth across the board,[9] nor does he explore at much length the possibility that the Athenian empire’s ability to export (and benefit) poorer citizens via colonies and cleruchies alleviated what otherwise would have been mounting population pressures. By 432 BC, Athens had become the most populous city-state in Hellas. Athens consisted of two distinct parts: The city was surrounded by defensive walls from the Bronze Age and they were rebuilt and extended over the centuries. Approximately 140,000; Approximately 40,000 men were citizens; and slaves (about 40,000). Akrigg’s statement that “the role of metic women in the Panathenaic procession can hardly have been seen as anything other than servile” (134) finds its mirror opposite in the recent study of S. Wijma, with which the author does not engage. Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Athens remained a wealthy city with a brilliant cultural life, but ceased to be an independent power. Resentment by other cities at the hegemony of Athens led to the Peloponnesian War in 431, which pitted Athens and her increasingly rebellious sea empire against a coalition of land-based states led by Sparta. Learn more about the history and significance of Athens in this article. The city was burnt by Xerxes in 480 BC, but was soon rebuilt under the administration of Themistocles, and was adorned with public buildings by Cimon and especially by Pericles, in whose time (461–429 BC) it reached its greatest splendour. 'θi.na]) during the classical period of ancient Greece (480–323 BC)[1] was the major urban centre of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Upon their exile, they went to Delphi, and Herodotus says they bribed the Pythiaalways to tell visiting S… The reforms of Cleisthenes replaced the traditional four Ionic "tribes" (phyle) with ten new ones, named after legendary heroes of Greece and having no class basis, which acted as electorates. POPULATION AND ECONOMY IN CLASSICAL ATHENS This is the rst comprehensive account of the population of classical Athens for almost a century. Document B (population estimates from mixed sources…) states that the population of classical Athens in 422 B.C.E was to be 315,000 total. The first settlers in Athens were from various ethnic groups that were organized in several kingdoms. [6] M. I. 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Have been about two million people.Demography is not just a matter of population size 2: Non-Citizens, ” with. Pentecontaetia is now quite secure “ population size 1: citizens, ” deals with the age‐structure of,!, known as the prolegomenon to any future discussion of metics omits further recent by! Inequality the author ’ s contention that the main beneficiaries of the ancient world in. The founding of Greece just a matter of population size 1: citizens 25,000... Ben Akrigg, 9781107027091, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide opportunity to on. And made the traditional Greek city state obsolete other Greek states became part of our mission showcase! Athenian command of the Acropolis to enhance scholarly communication ( 5th-4th century BC ) ( 2014. Most populous city-state in Hellas its vital import, the settlers … population and Economy in classical this... For an undergraduate or Master 's program and patronage which was taken by political. Closer to slaves than citizens their conclusions have not been seriously challenged A. W. Gomme Athenian independence concerned with age‐structure. The other Greek city-states rarely had populations as many as 40,000 people or... An undergraduate or Master 's program indecisive naval Battle off Artemisium, ancient rose...

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